Question: How should one appoint an agent (wakil) to sacrifice qurban on one’s behalf?
Let me explain it one by one:
1. While one’s proxy is sacrificing qurban on one’s behalf, one should intend by heart and then it suffices to say, “I have appointed you as my agent to sacrifice my qurban for Eid al-Adha for Allah’s sake.” If someone else buys and sacrifices it on one’s behalf, one should say, “I have appointed you as my general agent (al-wakil al- aammah) to buy my qurban or to have someone buy it and to sacrifice it or to have someone sacrifice it.” Alternatively, one can say in brief, “I have appointed you as my general agent to deal with my qurban.”
2. If sacrificing qurban is not wajib on one but one’s agent has sacrificed it as wajib qurban, one’s qurban is valid, but it is deemed voluntary.
3. Someone who has been appointed as wakil to perform qurban cannot appoint a second wakil unless he gets permission from the principal or unless he has been appointed as a general wakil. If he is a general wakil, he can appoint another wakil, and the third one can appoint another wakil, too.
4. Partners may give less or more money to the person who performs qurban by agency (wakalah). The wakil may perform qurban for the ones who appointed him as wakil or he may have someone else sacrifice it. Afterwards, the wakil may ask for money or he may not. He himself may pay for it. If one gives him money that can buy two qurbans, he may buy two qurbans or give him two shares. Alternatively, he may buy one of high quality because a general wakil has full authority.
5. It is valid to appoint more than one wakil. If two wakils are appointed for a task, one of them is not authorized alone. However, when returning a trust, paying a debt, performing qurban, either may be authorized alone because about these tasks, one wakil does not have to ask about the opinion of the other. If one appoints four wakils to perform one’s qurban, if one of them performs qurban, there is no need to take the others’ opinions.
6. If one says to a person, “Deal with my qurban,” one has appointed him as a wakil even if one does not give him money. The wakil may buy an animal and sacrifice it for one.
7. In order for the permissibility for one to sacrifice one’s own qurban on behalf of someone else, one has to give away one’s qurban to someone else or his wakil. They should take it and then the donor should be appointed wakil and sacrifice the qurban.
8. It is permissible to sacrifice someone else’s animal on behalf of him without his knowledge.
9. If a man sacrifices a qurban on behalf of his wife without being appointed a wakil by her, the qurban is valid if he later explains the matter to her and she agrees.
10. If one sacrifices someone else’s animal for oneself without his/her permission, it is permissible if one pays him/her its value afterwards. If the owner does not accept its value but instead takes the animal sacrificed, then the animal is considered to have been sacrificed for its owner.
11. If someone who has been appointed wakil by many people cannot sacrifice qurbans even on the third day for any reason whatsoever, he can sacrifice them even on the fourth day by making use of the ruling of the Shafi’i Madhhab.
12. It is enough to shed blood of the qurban on Eid al-Adha, and it is not a condition to distribute its meat. When its blood is shed, one is considered to have performed wajib qurban. If its meat is distributed to proper people, one will earn much more thawab, too. It is mustahab to keep one-third of it for one’s family, to give one-third of it to one’s neighbors, and to give the rest to the poor. It is permissible as well to keep all of it for one’s family or to give all of it to the poor.
13. Its skin must be given to a poor person who performs salat. It must not be given to people one does not know. Alternatively, it can be used at home, too. Or it can be given away in return for something that can be used permanently. It cannot be sold in return for money or something that is consumed. If its skin or meat is sold, then the money must be given to a poor person as sadaqah.
Question: If one wants to give one’s qurban away to a charity, how should one appoint a wakil for it?
One, while giving money for qurban to a person employed for this task, who wants to give one’s qurban away to a charity, should say, “I have appointed you as my general agent to buy or to have someone else buy my qurban for Eid al-Adha, to sacrifice it or to have someone else sacrifice it, and to give its meat and skin to whomever you wish.” One can appoint a wakil even by letter, by fax, by e-mail, or by phone. The money for it may be sent in advance or later. The person employed for this task should tie a number to the qurban he bought. He should write down this number and the name of the owner of the qurban in a notebook. While the qurbans are being sacrificed, he should say the names of the owners of the qurbans to the butchers and appoint them as wakils. Only the qurbans sacrificed in this way are considered valid.
Question: Can one who has been appointed as a general wakil to buy qurban appoint someone else as a general wakil? Can the third one appoint someone else as a general wakil, too?
It is cited in Se’adet-i Ebediyye from Radd-ul-Mukhtar:
A wakil can appoint someone else as wakil with the permission of the one who has charged him with this task. If a person appointed to buy qurban appoints a second person and the second one appoints a third one and if the third one buys the qurban, it will be permissible if the principal (muwakkil) gives permission. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
Question: We are seven people. Is there an easy way to share among us the qurban we will sacrifice?
Yes, there is. While the partners are appointing you as their wakil, if they say, “I appoint you as my general agent to sacrifice my qurban of Eid al-Adha or to have someone else sacrifice it and to make use of its meat and skin as you wish,” then its meat will be yours. You can give it to whomever you want as you wish or you may not give it to anyone. You may give it to the poor without sharing it among the partners. Or you may distribute it to the seven partners by mere estimation.
Question: Does one whom I have appointed as my wakil to sacrifice my qurban have to say three times “I accept”?
No, it is enough to say once. It is also enough to nod head. If one does not object, it means that one has accepted it.
Question: When one is appointing a wakil, can one say a nickname instead of one’s real name for some reason?
Yes, one can because Allahu ta’ala knows the one who appoints the wakil.