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Ghusl, ablution and salât (namâz)  >  Salât (Namâz)  >  Missed (Qada) Salats  >  Is It Permissible for a Person Who Does Not Have Qada Salats to Perform Qada Salats?

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Is It Permissible for a Person Who Does Not Have Qada Salats to Perform Qada Salats?

Question: Is it permissible for a person who does not have any qada salats to perform sunnat salats with the intention of both performing sunnat salats and making up qada salats?
ANSWER
[To carry out a salat within its prescribed time period is called adaa. To carry it out after its prescribed time has ended is called qada. Throughout this article, we will use the verb make up to mean to do qada of a salat.]

The purpose in performing the sunnat salats of the five daily salats is to perform a salat in addition to a fard salat. Our Master the Prophet used to perform salats before or after fard salats. As he performed them, the performance of them became sunnat on us. It is written in fiqh books:

1. If one performs any salat in addition to a fard salat, one is considered to have performed the sunnat salat as well. It is not necessary to specially intend for a sunnat salat. If one gets up at night and performs two rak'ats of Salat at-Tahajjud and then realizes that the time for Salat al-Fajr already started, one is no longer allowed to perform the sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr. The two-rak'at nafila salat one performed substitutes for the sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr. (Ashbah)

2.
Performing a salat that one vowed to perform in addition to a fard salat stands for sunnat salat as well. It is written in Durr-ul-Mukhtar, "A person who wants to perform a nafila salat should first vow to perform a salat and then perform this vowed salat instead of performing the nafila salat. A person who performs sunnat salats after vowing them will have performed the sunnat salats themselves." Hadrat Ibn Abidin explains these statements as follows, "As it is wajib to perform a salat that one vowed, one will be given the thawab of a wajib act of worship. When one performs the vowed salat instead of the sunnat salat, one will have performed the sunnat salat, too.” (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)

3. When one performs a qada salat or a vowed salat or any nafila salat in addition to a fard salat, one has fulfilled the sunnat as well because, by performing one more salat [nafila or qada] in addition to the fard salat during the time of it, one is considered to have fulfilled the sunnat as well. (Nawadir-i Fiqhiyya)

The sunnat salats of the five daily salats refer to the salats performed by the Messenger of Allah. It was later that those salats were named sunnat salats. When performing the sunnat salats of the five daily salats, the Messenger of Allah used to intend, "To perform salat for Allah’s sake." He did not intend, "To perform the sunnat salat." Any salat performed so in every salat time becomes the salat that is called sunnat. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar, Uyun-ul-Basair, Halabi)

Hadrat Muhammad Ma'sum stated:
The salats one performs with the intention of qada though one has finished making up one's qada salats will become nafila (voluntary). In this case, one will be given thawab promised for nafila acts of worship, for it is not necessary to make a certain niyyah (intention) for nafila salats performed at certain times [such as the sunnat salats of the five daily salats, Salat ad-Duha, Salat al-Awwabin, and Salat at-Tahajjud]. Qada salats are counted as nafila salats of these times. (Vol. 2, Letter 63)

As is seen, when one performs a qada salat, one is considered to have fulfilled the sunnat as well. Even if one does not have any fard salats to make up, there is nothing wrong with performing sunnat salats with the intention of both performing sunnat salats and making up qada salats.

Question: If one does not have any fard salats to make up, the qada salats one performs will be counted as nafila salats. Then if one performs qada salats of Salat al-Maghrib, they will be counted as nafila salats if one does not have qada salats. Since a nafila salat does not consist of three rak'ats, should a person who does not have qada salats not avoid performing the sunnat salat of Salat al-Maghrib with the intention of performing the sunnat salat and making up a qada salat?
ANSWER

No, one should not. When one performs any salat in addition to a fard salat, one is considered to have fulfilled the sunnat as well. For this reason, there is nothing wrong with performing sunnat salats with the intention of both performing sunnat salats and making up one's qada salats. Our Master the Prophet sometimes used to perform six rak'ats after Salat al-Maghrib, and he sometimes used to perform the post-fard sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr as four rak'ats. He occasionally performed plenty of salats after the fard salat of Salat al-Isha. Herein the number of rak'ats does not matter. That is, if one who does not have any qada salats performs the post-fard sunnat salat of Salat al-Maghrib or of Salat al-Isha as three rak'ats with the intention of both a sunnat salat and a qada salat, one will be considered to have fulfilled the sunnat; that is, one will earn the thawab of a sunnat salat as well. Hadrat Imam-i Rabbani stated:

"Hadrat Imam-i A'zam, because of the omission of a mustahab element of wudu', later made up 40 years' salats [although he did not have any fard salats to make up]." (Vol. 1, Letter 29)

In summary, one who does not have any qada salats is allowed to perform qada salats. It is more appropriate to perform sunnat salats with the intention of both performing sunnat salats and making up one's qada salats. When one performs sunnat salats with this intention, one will not be considered to have skipped the sunnat salats. On the contrary, one will have made up the salats in which one may have committed something makruh or something that nullified salat.

Question:
Even if one does not have any missed salats, is it better for one to make up all one's salats all through one's life thinking that one may have committed something makruh in one's salats?
ANSWER
Yes, it would be better. However, one who does not have any missed salats must not perform qada salats after Salat al-Fajr and Salat al-Asr because if one does not have any qada salats then the qada salats one performs will be counted as nafila salats. Nafila salats cannot be performed at these times. The same thing is written in the book Muzmarat. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)

Question:
Suppose that one does not have any qada salats but performs qada salats. Is it necessary for one to recite an additional surah in the third and fourth rak'ats of four-rak'at qada salats?
ANSWER
The qada salats performed by one who does not have any qada salats are considered nafila salats. It is necessary to recite an additional surah in each rak'at of a nafila salat. However, if one performs the sunnat salats of the five daily salats and the other sunnat salats that are not related to fard salats, such as Salat ad-Duha, Salat al-Awwabin, and Salat at-Tahajjud, with the intention of both performing sunnat salats and making up qada salats, it is not necessary to recite an additional surah in the third and fourth rak'ats. The reason for this is that our Master the Prophet performed salats not only before or after fard salats but also at times when Salat ad-Duha, Salat al-Awwabin, and Salat at-Tahajjud are offered. Performance of them became sunnat on us. If one performs Salat ad-Duha or Salat at-Tahajjud more than 12 rak'ats with the intention of both performing this salat and making up a qada salat, then one must recite an additional surah in the third and fourth rak'ats. As it is sunnat to perform it up to 12 rak'ats, in this case it is not necessary to recite an additional surah in the third and fourth rak'ats, but it is better to recite it.

When one performs a qada salat in addition to a fard salat or at the time of Duha, Awwabin, or Tahajjud, one is considered to have fulfilled the sunnat and to have performed a salat at that time. For this reason, it is not necessary to recite an additional surah in the third and fourth rak'ats. However, reciting it does not harm salat, just it is the case with reciting it in the third and fourth rak'ats of fard salats.

The statement of the book Tatarhaniyya "One who does not know whether or not one has any qada salats had better say additional surahs in the sunnat salats of Salat az-Zuhr, Salat al-Asr, and Salat al-Isha" means "It is better for such a person to perform sunnat salats with the intention of qada salats and to recite an additional surah." (Uyun-ul-Basair)

 
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22 Ocak 2020 Çarşamba
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