Question: How should a safari (traveler) perform salat in jama'at?
If a safari imam intends in salat that he is a muqim (resident) and then performs the salat as four rak'ats, then the salats of the jama'at will be valid.
If a muqim who is following a safari imam does something that requires sajda as-sahw when completing the remaining rak'ats after the imam has said the salam, he must do sajda as-sahw.
If one sets out with the intention of traveling the safar distance [104 km and more] when it has got quite close to the end of the time for a four-rak'at fard salat, one must perform it as two rak'ats if one has not performed it yet. If one becomes a muqim when it has got quite close to the end of the time for a four-rak'at fard salat, one must perform it as four rak'ats.
A muqim who is following a safari imam must not say salawat in the first sitting, and he should recite at-tahiyyat slowly. A safari must perform Zukr-i Akhir salat on Friday as two rak'ats.
If a student who receives an education in the city of, for example, A travels to safar distance for work and then he returns and intends to travel to another place the following week, he is considered a traveler in the city of A, too.
If one who does not have much knowledge of the rules regarding travel has doubts as to whether one is a traveler or not, one is considered a muqim. In this case, one must perform salats without shortening them. Even if one has erred in one's judgment, one is considered excused. However, if one shortens salats though one is not a safari, one must make them up. For this reason, one should act cautiously.
If a traveler who follows the Shafi'i Madhhab or Maliki Madhhab during travel delays Salat az-Zuhr in order to combine it with Salat al-Asr within the time for Salat al-Asr and then if he/she becomes a muqim before performing Salat az-Zuhr, he/she must make up Salat az-Zuhr first. He/she is not sinful for missing Salat az-Zuhr because what is a sin is to omit a fard salat without a valid excuse. In this case, it is not a sin as he/she missed it due to the excuse of being on a journey.
Question: Can a guest behave as he likes in the house he is staying? Can he lead salats without being asked to?
When you are a guest in one's home, you should sit at a place where the host points. The host should lead the salat, or he may choose someone to lead it. In short, the host is the leader of that group. A hadith-i sharif says:
(When you visit a friend of yours, your friend is your leader until you leave him.) [Ibn Adiy]
Question: Suppose that a safari (traveler), while leading a muqim jama'at in Salat az-Zuhr, performed the salat as four rak'ats forgetfully. Some of the jama'at performed the salat as four rak'ats with the imam, and some of them completed the salat individually when the imam stood up for the third rak'at. What is the ruling on this scenario?
The salats of those muqim people who follow the safari imam until the end of the salat are nullified because a person who performs a fard salat is not allowed to follow another person who is performing a nafila (voluntary) salat. However, the salats of those people who complete the last two rak'ats individually without following the imam are valid.
Question: How many rak'ats should safari jama'at offer for four-rak'at fard salats when they are following a muqim imam?
They must perform them as four-rak'ats.
Question: If a muqim (resident) follows a safari imam, will he perform salat by shortening it?
A muqim is not allowed to shorten salats. For example, if he is following the safari imam in Salat az-Zuhr, he must complete it to four rak'ats.
Question: Suppose that a safari (traveler) caught up with the imam in the last rak'at of Salat al-Asr. He performed the salat as two rak'ats because he guessed that the imam, too, was a safari. What should he do if he learns later that the imam was a muqim?
One cannot act on a guess. If it is not known whether an imam is a muqim or safari, it is assumed that he is a muqim. As for the ruling on the person you have mentioned in your question, he must repeat the salat if the time for it has not expired. If the time for it has expired, he must perform a qada (make up) salat.
Question: If a safari person who catches up with the imam in the last rak'at of Salat al-Asr thinks that the imam is a muqim and therefore performs the salat as four rak'ats, what should he do if he learns later that the imam was a safari?
There is no harm because he did not perform it as four rak'ats deliberately.
Question: Can a safari imam lead muqim jama'at in Salat al-Jumu'ah?
Yes, he can.
Question: If a muqim who is following a safari imam does something that necessitates sajda as-sahw after the imam has said the salam, will he have to do sajda as-sahw?
If one, while performing salat with the imam, does something that requires sajda as-sahw, one must not do sajda as-sahw at the end of the salat. However, if one does something that requires sajda as-sahw while completing the remaining rak'ats after the imam has said the salam, then one must do sajda as-sahw.
Question: Is it permissible for a muqim Hanafi to follow a safari Shafi'i imam who is performing a four-rak'at fard salat without shortening it during travel?
Yes, it is permissible.
Question: Is it sunnat to perform salat in jama'at during travel as well?
Yes, it is sunnat.
Question: It is written in the book Se'adet-i Ebediyye in its section dealing with salat in jama'at, "A safari may follow a muqim when performing four-rak'at fard salats. If a safari follows a muqim imam within a salat time, his salat changes to four rakats like the imams salat. On the other hand, as a safari has to perform a four-rak'at qada salat as two rak'ats, he cannot follow a muqim imam when performing a four-rak'at qada salat; otherwise, a person for whom it is fard to sit and recite would have followed another person for whom it is voluntary to sit and recite." Could you please clarify these statements?
If a safari person misses Salat az-Zuhr, Salat al-Asr, or Salat al-Isha, he is not allowed to follow a muqim imam who is making up the same salat. The reason for this is that the safari person has to perform the qada salat as two rak'ats. It is not fard for a muqim to sit in the first sitting. As it is fard for a safari, he is not allowed to follow the muqim imam. However, the safari person is allowed to follow a muqim imam when performing a fard salat in its time.
Question: A friend of mine did not join the jama'at, saying, "It is written in the book Se'adet-i Ebediyye that a safari is not allowed to join a muqim imam after the second rak'at." Is it true?
No, it is not true. A safari person can join the imam in any rak'at. It is written in the book Se'adet-i Ebediyye:
"A safari may follow a muqim when performing four rak'at fard salats. If there should be any rakats that he has not caught up with, he performs them after the imam says the salam, thus making them four. If a safari follows a muqim imam within a salat time, his salat changes to four rakats like the imam's salat."
Question: If a safari imam performs four rak'ats instead of two rak'ats, will his salat and the salats of jama'at be valid?
If a safari imam, after saying at-tahiyyat in the second rak'at, stands up for the third rak'at by mistake and performs four rak'ats, the salat of the imam and the salats of those safari people following him will be valid. However, the salats of muqim ones following him will not be valid because the last two rak'ats of the imam are considered nafila (voluntary). A person who is performing a fard salat is not allowed to follow another person who is performing a nafila salat.
If safari ones, when the safari imam stands up for the third rak'at by mistake, say the salam without standing up, their salats will be valid. If they stand up together with the imam, they will have committed a makruh act. The salats of muqim ones, however, will be invalid.
Question: As a safari imam will say the salam at the end of the second rak'at when performing a four-rak'at fard salat, should muqim jama'at behind him remain silent after saying at-tahiyyat, or should they repeat Kalima ash-Shahadah?
Either is permissible, but it is better to repeat Kalima ash-Shahadah.