Question: What are the wajib elements of salat?
They are as follows:
1. Reciting Surat al-Fatiha,
2. Reciting a surah or at least three short ayahs after Surat al-Fatiha,
3. Reciting Surat al-Fatiha before a surah,
4. Reciting a surah after Surat al-Fatiha in the first and second rak’ats of fard salats and in every rak’at of sunnat salats,
5. Doing the two sajdas one after another,
6. Reciting Surat al-Fatiha once in every rak’at of sunnat and wajib salats,
7. Sitting in the second rak’at of three- or four-rak’at salats,
8. Not sitting in the first sitting more than it takes one to say at-tahiyyat,
9. Putting the nose together with the forehead on the ground during sajda,
10. Reciting at-tahiyyat in the last sitting,
11. Observing ta’dil-i arkan,
12. Saying the salam at the end of salat,
13. Reciting Qunut prayers in the third rak’at of Salat al-Witr,
14. Saying takbirs in Salat al-Eid,
15. The imam’s performing recitation loudly in Salat al-Fajr, Salat al-Jumu’ah, Salat al-Eid, Salat at-Tarawih, Salat al-Witr, and in the first and second rak’ats of Salat al-Maghrib and Salat al-Isha,
16. For the imam and for a person performing salat individually, reciting quietly in Salat az-Zuhr and Salat al-Asr, in the third rak’at of Salat al-Maghrib, and in the third and fourth rak’ats of Salat al-Isha.
Question: Is it wajib to repeat a salat in which one committed a makruh act?
It is makruh tahrimi to omit one of the wajib elements of salat. Such a salat is considered valid, but one has committed a sin because he omitted a wajib element. That is, it is wajib to repeat that salat.
Omitting one of the sunnat-i muakkada elements of salat is makruh tahrimi. It is not wajib, but sunnat, to repeat a salat in which one omitted one of the sunnat-i muakkada elements.
Question: It is written in Se’adet-i Ebediyye, “It is sunnat to recite Surat al-Fatiha in the third and fourth rak’ats of fard salats. Some scholars said that it was wajib.” That is, if I do not recite anything in the third and fourth rak’ats and bow for ruku’ after waiting a little, will my salat be valid?
It is makruh to omit a sunnat element. According to the scholars who say that it is wajib to recite Surat al-Fatiha in the third and fourth rak’ats, it is wajib to repeat a salat in which Surat al-Fatiha has been omitted.
In the madhhabs of Shafi’i and Maliki, it is fard to recite Surat al-Fatiha in every rak’at. Therefore, it is fard to recite it in every rak’at for a person who follows the Shafi’i or Maliki Madhhab.
Question: In which salats should one recite audibly?
Reciting the Qur’an al-karim in salat is called qira’at. Reciting it as loudly as one can hear one’s own recitation is called khafi recitation. Reciting it as loudly as the people near the reciter can hear is called jahri recitation.
It is wajib for the imam to recite Surat al-Fatiha and an additional surah loudly in the two-rak’at fard salat of Salat al-Fajr and in the first and second rak’ats of Salat al-Maghrib and Salat al-Isha. If he forgetfully recites them quietly, he has to do sajda as-sahw.
As for a person performing salat individually, recitation loudly or quietly in the abovementioned salats is left to personal choice. That is, he may recite loudly if he wills, or he may recite quietly if he wills. It is better to recite them loudly.
When one is making up (qada) the fard salats of Salat al-Fajr, Salat al-Maghrib, and Salat al-Isha in the morning or in the evening, there is nothing wrong with performing recitation loudly; it is better. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)
If one is making up Salat al-Fajr, Salat al-Maghrib, or Salat al-Isha of the current day in jama’at, the imam should recite loudly just as he recites when he performs it in its time.
One may recite loudly when performing Salat al-Witr in its time or after its time but must not recite Qunut prayers loudly.
One who individually performs Salat al-Awwabin in the evening or Salat at-Tahajjud at night is free to recite quietly or loudly. However, it is wajib to recite quietly in salats performed in the day time, such as Salat az-Zuhr and Salat al-Asr, and in voluntary salats performed in the daytime, such as Salat ad-Duha. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)
While a man is performing Salat al-Maghrib, Salat al-Isha, or Salat al-Fajr individually, if someone else comes and joins him after he has recited some ayahs of Surat al-Fatiha, the imam should recite Surat al-Fatiha afresh loudly. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)
If a man is made imam after he has completed Surat al-Fatiha or some ayahs of it, he must repeat it loudly because it is wajib to recite the remaining ayahs of it loudly when jama’at is formed. However, it is abominable to recite some ayahs loudly and some ayahs quietly in the same rak’at. That is why it is necessary to recite them afresh loudly. That is, if he is made imam when he is about to complete a surah, he must repeat both Surat al-Fatiha and that surah loudly. (Ibn Abidin)
If a person performs the sunnat salats of Salat al-Maghrib and Salat al-Isha with the intention of both making up a missed salat and performing the sunnat salat, he may recite loudly. If a person performs Salat al-Awwabin and Salat at-Tahajjud with the intention of both making up a missed salat and performing the nafila salat, he may recite loudly, too.
Reciting loudly applies to men only. A woman is not allowed to recite loudly in any salat, even if there is no one around. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
Question: Is it wajib to say takbir before Qunut prayers?
Saying it is wajib according to Imam-i A’zam but sunnat according to Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-i Abu Yusuf. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar, Bahr-ur-Raiq, Ni’mat-i Islam)
If one forgets to say it, sajda as-sahw is not required. If one forgets to recite Qunut prayers, sajda as-sahw is required.