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Combining Two Salats

Question: For what cases is it valid to combine (jam') two salats together?
ANSWER
Sometimes it may be necessary to combine two salats together and to perform them in the time of the former or the latter. If a doctor who is performing an operation or a midwife who is delivering a baby is unable to perform salat in time or if one is unable to perform salat due to saving a drowning person or taking an exam or having an illness, etc., it is permissible to combine two salats together at the time stipulated for one of them according to some madhhabs. Performing Salat al-Asr together with Salat az-Zuhr at the time of Salat az-Zuhr or Salat al-Isha together with Salat al-Maghrib at the time of Salat al-Maghrib is called jam at-taqdim (early combination). Performing Salat az-Zuhr together with Salat al-Asr at the time of Salat al-Asr and Salat al-Maghrib together with Salat al-Isha at the time of Salat al-Isha is called jam at-ta'khir (delayed combination). Combination of two salats does not apply to Salat al-Fajr.

In the Hanafi Madhhab:
Pilgrims combine Salat az-Zuhr and Salat al-Asr at the time of Salat az-Zuhr behind the imam delivering the sermon at al-'Arafah. They cannot be combined if performed in tents in jama'at or individually. As for at al-Muzdalifa, Salat al-Maghrib and Salat al-Isha are combined together by delaying Salat al-Maghrib until the time for Salat al-Isha. For the combination at al-Muzdalifa, there is no requirement that they be performed in jama'at. They may be combined individually as well. Hanafis are not allowed to combine two salats elsewhere. However, they can combine two salats by making use of the ruling of any of the other three madhhabs when there is necessity or a dire need to do so.

In the Maliki Madhhab:
It is sunnat to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr at al-Arafah and Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha at al-Muzdalifa when performing salat behind the imam. Combination of two salats is permissible during traveling, but it is not permissible during a sea journey. If need be, one can make use of the ruling of either of the other two madhhabs in this case.

A muqim (settled) can combine two salats due to a serious illness or old age. Besides, if there is, while salat is being performed in jama'at in the mosque, heavy rain or mud together with the dark, then it will be permissible to combine two salats by bringing forward the latter one. However, it is not permissible at home. When two salats are combined together, Salat al-Witr must be performed at the time stipulated for it.

When combining two salats in the Maliki Madhhab, one has to perform Salat az-Zuhr before Salat al-Asr and Salat al-Maghrib before Salat al-Isha, has to make niyyah (intention) to combine two salats before starting the first one, and has to perform two fard salats one after another. There is nothing wrong with making wudu' or saying iqamah in between, but performing a sunnat salat in between is makruh. According to some scholars, when one is settled (muqim), it is permissible to combine two salats for a need such as when there is a wedding ceremony. If an ill Hanafi has a dental filling, he/she can combine two salats during illness by making use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, not Hanbali Madhhab.

In the Shafi'i Madhhab:
On a legitimate journey and at al-Arafah and al-Muzdalifah, Salat az-Zuhr is combined with Salat al-Asr and Salat a-Maghrib is combined with Salat al-Isha. In heavy rain, only jam al-taqdim, not jam al-ta'khir, is permissible in jama'at in the mosque. According to another narration, it is applicable to a person performing salat individually, too. According to a narration, it is permissible to combine two salats during illness as well. When one is settled, it is permissible to combine two salats out of a fear or if there is a serious need. Imam-i Nawawi and Ibn Munzir said the same thing, too. During the combination of the two salats in the Shafi'i Madhhab, it is necessary to perform Salat az-Zuhr before Salat al-Asr and Salat al-Maghrib before Salat al-Isha, to intend to combine two salats before starting the first salat, and to perform them one after another. Combination of two salats is not valid if a sunnat salat is performed in between, but there is nothing wrong with making wudu' or saying iqamah in between.

In the Hanbali Madhhab:
It is permissible to combine two salats at al-Arafah and al-Muzdalifa, during long-distance journeys, in case of illness, for a woman during lactation, in case of excuses that break wudu' such as istihada, urinary incontinence, involuntary wind breaking, for those who have great difficulty in performing wudu' or tayammum or cannot know salat times such as blind people and underground workers, and for a person whose life, property, livelihood, or chastity is in danger. In case of cold, wintertime, rain, mud, storm, combining Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha is permissible even when one is at home, but it is not permissible to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr. When combining two salats, it is necessary to perform Salat az-Zuhr before Salat al-Asr and Salat al-Maghrib before Salat al-Isha, to intend for combination when beginning the earlier salat, to perform the two salats one immediately after the other. There is nothing wrong with making wudu' or saying iqamah in between. Combination is not valid if a sunnat salat is performed in between. A Hanafi with a dental filling should make use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab to combine two salats in case of illness, because it is possible to make use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab (as he/she is actually imitating the Maliki Madhhab because of the dental filling). If it were not possible to make use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, then one would make use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab.

Question: For what cases is it valid to combine two salats when one is settled (muqim)?
ANSWER
If there is a hardship or if one suffers trouble, one can combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr or Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab because it is written in the book Se'adet-i Ebediyye, "For those who cannot leave their duties for performing salat, it is permissible to combine two salats by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab." In a situation in which performing salat does not cause harm to one's earning a livelihood but if it causes a file to be opened on one or causes some other trouble, it will be permissible to combine two salats even when one is settled (muqim). Some cases for which it is valid to combine two salats [when one is settled] are as follows:

1. If a midwife is to miss a salat because of childbirth,

2. If a doctor is to miss a salat because of an operation,

3.
If a student is to miss a salat because of an exam,

4. If an ill or an old person has difficulty in making wudu' and performing salat,

5. If one has difficulty in making wudu' and performing salat on a plane,

6. If one cannot find a place for wudu' or salat,

7. If one has difficulty in making wudu' and tayammum,

8. If a security guard does not get a chance to perform salat,

9. If it is difficult for one to learn salat times because one is in the mountains or in a foreign country or because of wintertime,

10. If one is to miss salat because of rain or a storm,

11. If one does not get a chance to perform salat even in a restroom,

12. If one is to miss a salat at hotels, restaurants, airports where there is no place to perform salat or at international meetings,

13. If one who has converted to Islam very recently is to run into trouble if seen performing salat,

14. If a civil servant is to suffer trouble as regards his job and livelihood if he leaves a meeting,

15. If a bus, during long-distance journeys, does not stop or if a person has an ill relative with him/her or if one does not have money to get on another bus if one gets off for salat,

16. If one is to miss a salat because of being stuck in a traffic jam with one's car in a city where there is traffic congestion, such as Istanbul,

17. If a salat time is to end while one is saving a person from drowning,

18. If there is a strong likelihood that the enemy or anarchists will cause damage,

19. It is permissible for a person with an excuse that breaks his/her wudu' to combine two salats. Excuses of this kind are as follows: incontinence with urine or diarrhea, flow of blood from a carbuncle, wound, or piles, discharge of substance from fistulas or the navel, involuntary breaking of wind, vomiting a mouthful, etc.

20. Combining two salats is permissible if performing salat causes trouble at feasts organized to break fast.

Question:
When Salat al-Maghrib and Salat al-Isha are combined at the time of the former on a journey out of necessity or when one is settled (muqim), is it permissible to include Salat al-Witr in the combination? Secondly, it is written in the book Islam Ahlakı [Ethics of Islam], "For a person who is making use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab [in salat], it is permissible to skip Salat al-Witr if there is a hardship (haraj)." Does haraj mean darurat?
ANSWER
Haraj does not mean darurat (extreme necessity). It means an inconvenience and a hardship. Two salats cannot be combined if there is not a hardship. If there is a hardship on a journey, one can combine Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha by making use of the ruling of any of the other three madhhabs. If one has to combine two salats when one is settled (muqim), then one should make use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab. Salat al-Witr is not included in the combination because it can be performed until the time of imsak. If one is unable to perform it until that time either, it will not be sinful to miss it as there is an excuse. Salat al-Witr is sunnat according to the Imamayn (Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-ı Abu Yusuf) and the other three madhhabs. When there is a hardship, it is permissible to make up after its prescribed time, or even to skip altogether, Salat al-Witr by making use of the ruling of any of the other three madhhabs. Similarly, if there is a hardship on a journey or when one is settled, one can make up later or skip altogether Salat al-Witr by making use of the ijtihad of the Imamayn. However, one cannot resort to these ways out unless there is a hardship.

Question: After performing Salat al-Maghrib in jama'at, is it permissible for a traveler to perform Salat al-Isha immediately after it by bringing the latter forward (jam at-taqdim)?
ANSWER
Yes, it is permissible.

Question: Is it permissible for a safari (traveler) to combine two salats by making use of the ruling of the Shafi'i or Maliki Madhhab when he/she is on safar (a journey that qualifies a person as a traveler)?
ANSWER
Yes, he/she can. However, there must be necessity to do so. Salats cannot be combined if there is no necessity.

If one is traveling by train, one, if one cannot perform salats standing inside the moving train, can combine two salats by jam at-taqdim or jam at-ta'khir when the train stops.

If there is no necessity, one cannot combine two salats by jam at-taqdim or jam at-ta'khir on a journey at the place where one is considered a traveler because gathering easier rulings is called talfiq, which is not permissible.

Question: To be able to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr, can one make intention to combine them after the time for Salat az-Zuhr ends?
ANSWER
Before the time for Salat az-Zuhr ends, one must make intention to combine them.

Question: When combining two salats during a journey, is it essential to fulfill the conditions of the madhhab whose ruling is made use of?
ANSWER
It is essential to fulfill the conditions set by the second madhhab one will follow.

Question: When should a safari make intention to combine two salats?
ANSWER
He/she should make intention the time he/she will perform salat. He/she cannot combine two salats before setting out on a journey.

Question: If one knows that one will become muqim at the time of Salat al-Asr, is it permissible for one to combine Salat az-Zuhr and Salat al-Asr at the time of Salat al-Asr?
ANSWER
It is sinful to delay it if there is no extreme necessity.

Question: After combining Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr by making use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab on a journey thinking that one may not be able to have a chance to perform Salat al-Asr during the journey, does one have to repeat Salat al-Asr if one has the chance to perform it within the time for Salat al-Asr?
ANSWER
Salat al-Asr has been performed, so it is not necessary to repeat it. However, it is better to be on the safe side. Maybe there was no reason to combine two salats or maybe you did not fulfill the conditions set by the second madhhab you followed. Your combination of two salats may not be valid for such reasons. Therefore, it is good to perform an extra salat by intending, "I intend to perform the latest Salat al-Asr that I have not been able to perform though I have reached its time." If Salat al-Asr that you performed is valid, the second salat will be considered a qada salat. If your Salat al-Asr is not valid, the second salat will be considered the current Salat al-Asr.

Question: If, when Salat az-Zuhr is delayed to combine it with Salat al-Asr, the time when it is makruh to perform salat has started, is it permissible to combine it with Salat al-Asr anyway?
ANSWER
Of course, one can combine them then.

Question:
When combining two salats, is it permissible to say the prayer, "Allahumma antas-salamu …" in between?
ANSWER
That prayer is considered from salat, so there is nothing wrong with saying it.

Question: When combining two salats by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab as the need arises, is it necessary for a Hanafi who also follows the Maliki Madhhab because of a dental filling to remember that he/she is also following the Hanbali Madhhab?
ANSWER
Yes, it is necessary. He/she must make this intention for each salat he/she is combining.

Question: It is written in the book Se'adet-i Ebediyye, "In the Hanbali Madhab, it is permissible to combine two salats during long-distance journeys, in case of illness, for a woman during lactation, in case of excuses that break wudu', for those who have great difficulty in performing wudu' or tayammum or cannot know salat times such as blind people and underground workers, and for a person whose life, property, livelihood or chastity is in danger." Why is it permissible for a woman seeing istihada blood to combine two salats?
ANSWER
Istihada is flow of blood from a woman after her normal period. It is difficult for such a woman to make wudu' for each salat; she has to change her pants and repeat wudu' for the subsequent salat. Because of this hardship, it is permissible for her to combine two salats. In fact, it is not a condition that there must be an extreme necessity to make use of the ruling of a second madhhab. It can be made use of when there is a need or a hardship. If there is an extreme necessity and if there is no way out in the other madhhabs either, then the madhhab one normally follows forgives one. If there is a way out in any of the other madhhabs, one can make use of that ruling. A dental filling, for example, is in this category because there is a way out in another madhhab for it. If there were not any ways out in any of the madhhabs, then the madhhab one follows normally would forgive one, and it would be permissible to do it.

If a woman seeing istihada blood makes use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, it is not necessary for her to combine two salats because istihada blood does not nullify her wudu'. She can perform the subsequent salat with the same wudu'. Making use of the ruling of another madhhab is a divine mercy. One should benefit from this divine mercy and should not abstain from it because of narrow-mindedness.

Question: What excuse should a Hanafi who makes use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab in salat have to be able to combine two salats?
ANSWER
The same rulings of the Hanafi Madhhab apply to him/her. Whatever condition is necessary to fulfill in the Hanafi Madhhab, the same conditions are necessary for a Hanafi who also makes use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab in salat. One who makes use of one of the rulings of another madhhab is not considered to have left the madhhab one normally follows. In order to be able to combine two salats, there is no different ruling applying to a person who also follows a second madhhab and the one who does not.

Question: Can a Hanafi with a dental filling, when he/she is settled (muqim), make use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab to combine two salats as the need arises?
ANSWER
Though it is fard to wash inside the mouth in ghusl in the Hanbali Madhhab, it is permissible to make use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab to combine two salats as the need arises when one is settled. Talfiq is to gather easier rulings of another madhhab, which is haram. However, if it is done for a need, it will be permissible and will not be considered an act of talfiq.

Question: If a traveler makes intention to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr at the time of Salat al-Asr and then becomes muqim when the time for Salat al-Asr starts, will he/she be sinful because of missing Salat az-Zuhr?
ANSWER
He/she does not incur a sin because he/she did not miss it deliberately. (Fatawa-i fiqhiyya)

In such situations, one can combine two salats by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab even when one is settled (muqim). During combination, Salat az-Zuhr should be performed as two rak'ats and Salat al-Asr should be performed as four rak'ats.

Question:
When combining two salats, e.g., Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr at the time of Salat az-Zuhr, out of necessity by making use of the ruling of any of the three madhhabs, is it permissible to perform Salat az-Zuhr in jama'at and then Salat al-Asr individually? Or when combining them at the time of Salat al-Asr, is it permissible to perform Salat az-Zuhr individually and Salat al-Asr in jama'at?
ANSWER
Yes, both are permissible. It is permissible, too, to be imam when performing the current salat. What you should be careful with is to perform two fard salats one after another. No salat must be performed in between.

Question: I sometimes combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr when there is extreme necessity to do so. How should I intend to combine it with Salat al-Asr?
ANSWER
Before combining them, one should decide that one, if one cannot perform Salat az-Zuhr within the time for it, will perform it at asr-i awwal and that one will combine it with Salat al-Asr at asr-i thani if one cannot perform it at asr-i awwal. Then if one cannot perform Salat az-Zuhr at the time stipulated for it, one should try to perform it at asr-i awwal by making use of the ruling of Hadrat Imam-i A'zam. If it is not possible to perform it at asr-i awwal either, then one should combine it at asr-i thani with Salat al-Asr. When combining them, one should intend, "I perform today's Salat az-Zuhr by combining it with Salat al-Asr."

Similarly, one who cannot perform Salat al-Maghrib at the time stipulated for it should intend likewise. Just like Salat al-Asr, there are two times for Salat al-Isha, namely, isha-i awwal and isha-i thani. Isha-i thani is 10-12 minnutes later than isha-i awwal from September to March. It is 12-14 minutes later than it in April. It is 14-18 minutes later than it in May. It is 18-19 minutes later than it in June. It is 15-19 later than it in July. It is 12-15 minutes later than it in August. It is better to perform Salat al-Asr at asr-i thani and Salat al-Isha at isha-i thani in order to follow both Imam-i A'zam and the Imamayn.

Question: If one, after performing Salat al-Asr, sets out for home with the intention of performing Salat al-Maghrib at home but cannot reach home until the time for Salat al-Isha, is it permissible for one to perform Salat al-Maghrib in the car by gestures (ishaarah)?
ANSWER
Combining two salats takes precedence over performing them in the car by gestures. If it is possible to combine Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha, one should make intention that one will combine Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha when one reaches home and then combine them at home. If one cannot reach home even during the time for Salat al-Isha, then one can perform salat in the car by gestures out of extreme necessity (darurat).

Question: If a person does not have the chance to perform salat at work, during military service, or in school, is it permissible for him to miss salats, or does he have to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr and Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha?
ANSWER
To skip a salat with the intention of making it up after its prescribed time is a major sin. In order to perform a fard salat at the time stipulated for it, one must seek all ways out in one's madhhab. One should perform it even in a restroom. If it is not possible either, it is permissible in the Hanbali Madhhab to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr and Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha in such situations even when one is settled. During combination, two fard salats must be performed one after another. A sunnat salat or a qada salat must not be performed in between, and one must not do anything or talk in between two salats.

If one does the combination at the time for Salat az-Zuhr, one, when beginning Salat az-Zuhr, should intend, "I intend to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr. After performing the fard salat of Salat az-Zuhr, one should intend "I intend to combine Salat al-Asr with Salat az-Zuhr at the time for Salat az-Zuhr by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab" and then perform Salat al-Asr.

If it is not possible to perform Salat az-Zuhr in its allotted time, one should decide "I will combine it with Salat al-Asr in the time allotted for Salat al-Asr" before the time for Salat az-Zuhr elapses. When one performs it in the Asr time, one should make the intention "I intend to perform Salat az-Zuhr in the Asr time by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab" and then perform Salat az-Zuhr. After it, one must perform Salat al-Asr.

If there is a need, Salat al-Maghrib and Salat al-Isha are combined as follows in the allotted time of the former or the latter by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab even when one is muqim:

If one does the combination in the Maghrib time, one must intend to combine Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha when one starts Salat al-Maghrib. After it, one must intend "I intend to combine Salat al-Isha with Salat al-Maghrib by bringing it forward by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab" and perform Salat al-Isha.

If it is not possible to perform Salat al-Maghrib in the allotted time for it, one should decide "I will combine it with Salat al-Isha in the Isha time." Then when one performs it at the Isha time, one should make the intention "I intend to combine Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha by delaying it until the Isha time by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab" and perform Salat al-Maghrib first and then Salat al-Isha.

Salat al-Asr cannot be combined with Salat al-Maghrib. Salat al-Fajr cannot be combined with Salat al-Isha or Salat az-Zuhr. It must be performed in the time stipulated for it.

Salat al-Witr cannot be combined with any salat, and it is permissible to perform it until the time of imsak. If it is not possible for one to perform it until that time, then one will not be sinful for missing it as there is an excuse because Salat al-Witr is sunnat according to Imam-i Abu Yusuf and Imam-i Muhammad and the other three madhhabs. On the occasion of a hardship, it is permisible to perform out of its stipulated time, even to skip, Salat al-Witr by making use of the ruling of the other three madhhabs. If there is a hardship during a journey or even when one is muqim, one can perform Salat al-Witr out of its stipulated time, or even skip it, by following Imam-i Abu Yusuf and Imam-i Muhammad. However, one cannot resort to these ways out if there is not a hardship.

Question: As it is permissible to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr and Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha during safar (a journey that qualifies a person as a traveler), is it permissible for a Hanafi who intends to stay at a place for a period of 10 days to combine two salats as the need arises?
ANSWER
For one who is making use of the ruling of another madhhab, it is necessary to abide by the other rulings of that madhhab concerning that particular act of worship. In the Maliki Madhhab, it is permissible to combine two salats during safar, but one who intends to stay for four days or more excluding the days of arrival and departure does not qualify as a safari. One who intends to stay for 10 days, therefore, cannot combine two salats by making use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab because one is not considered a safari in the Maliki Madhhab. In the Hanbali Madhhab, combining two salats is permissible even when one is muqim, if need be. If one cannot combine two salats according to the Maliki Madhhab, then one can combine them by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab. As one is considered muqim (settled) then, one must perform four-rak'at fard salats as four rak'ats while combining two salats.

Question: Is there any madhhab other than the Hanbali that regards the combination of two salats as permissible as the need arises on the occasion of extreme necessity or for a need when one is muqim?
ANSWER
In the madhhabs of Shafi'i and Maliki, combining two salats is permissible on some occasions when one is muqim:

In the Shafi'i Madhhab:
In heavy rain, only jam at-taqdim can be done only in a mosque. Jam at-ta'khir is not permissible. According to another qawl, a person performing salat individually can combine two salats. According to a qawl, it is permissible to combine two salats in case of an illness. Just as it is permissible to combine two salats out of a fear, so it is permissible to combine them in case of an important necessity even when one is muqim.

In the Maliki Madhhab:
It is permissible to combine two salats in case of a serious illness or old age. Besides, when performing salat in jama'at in the mosque, it is permissible to combine two salats by bringing forward the second of two salats in case of heavy rain and mud together with the dark. However, it cannot be done at home. Salat al-Witr must be performed at the time stipulated for it. If it is impossible to perform it at its due time, it is not necessary to make it up later because it is sunnat according to the Maliki Madhhab.

Question: Why does an ill person with a dental filling have to make use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab instead of that of the Hanbali Madhhab?
ANSWER
The reason for it is that in the Hanbali Madhhab it is obligatory to wash inside the mouth when performing ghusl. Therefore, a Hanafi with a dental filling cannot make use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab for combining two salats. As it is permissible in the Maliki Madhhab, there is no need for making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab.

Question: It is written in the book Se'adet-i Ebediyye, "In the Shafi'i Madhhab, it is permissible to combine two salats by jam at-taqdim in the mosque because of rain, but seven conditions must be fulfilled." What are the seven conditions, which are not written in it?
ANSWER
These seven conditions are as follows:

1. Observing the order:
If one combines Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr in the time of the former, one must perform Salat az-Zuhr first and then Salat al-Asr. If one combines Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha in the time of the former, one must perform Salat al-Maghrib first and then Salat al-Isha.

2. Intention:
One must make intention to combine two salats before starting the first salat. If one combines Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr in the time of the former, one must make the intention of combining two salats within the time stipulated for Salat az-Zuhr. If one combines Salat al-Maghrib with Salat al-Isha in the time of the former, one must make the intention of combining two salats within the time stipulated for Salat al-Maghrib.

3. Muwalat:
One must perform two fard salats one after another without a break in between. It is not permissible to perform a sunnat salat, but it is permissible to put adhan, iqamat, and purification in between. For example, while one is combining two salats, if one's wudu' breaks before performing Salat al-Asr after Salat az-Zuhr, it does not harm the combination of two salats if one performs wudu' in between.

4. Remoteness:
In order for one to combine two salats due to rain, it is a condition that the mosque should be far away.

5. The time for the first salat should not end:
The time stipulated for the first salat should not expire until one performs the second salat. For example, when one combines Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr, the time for Salat al-Asr should not start.

6. Thinking the first salat to be valid:
For example, if the first salat is Salat al-Jumu'ah and if one knows that it is not valid because its conditions are not fulfilled, combining two salats will not be valid.

7. Performing salat in jama'at:
The imam must make intention to lead the jama'at. In the Shafiî Madhhab, this is a condition to combine two salats due to rain. If one combines two salats during a journey, it is not a condition that it be performed in jama'at.

If one is safari, it is a condition that the state of being safari (traveler) should continue until one says the opening takbir for the second salat. If one's being safari ends after one has started the second salat, one continues the combination of two salats. However, if one's being safari ends before one has started the second salat, then it is no longer valid to combine two salats. In such cases, one can combine two salats by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab. If one has delayed salat until the time for the subsequent salat due to a valid excuse, one will not be sinful.

Question: It is writen in the book Se'adet-i Ebediyye that combining two salats is permissible not only when one is on a journey but also when one is ill or old in the madhhabs of Maliki and Shafi'i. If a Hanafi muqim makes use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab due to a dental filling, should he/she make use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab instead of that of the Hanbali Madhhab to combine two salats when he/she is ill? Secondly, is it permissible for the old to combine two salats even if they are not ill?
ANSWER
A person who is making use of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab due to a dental filling cannot make use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab to combine two salats when it is possible to combine two salats according to the Maliki Madhhab because it is fard to wash inside the mouth in ghusl according to the Hanbali Madhhab. He/she cannot make use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab as he/she does not have ghusl according to the Hanbali Madhhab. As it is permissible to combine two salats in case of illness in the Maliki Madhhab, there is no need to make use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab. However, one can combine two salats by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab due to some other excuse when one is muqim because there is no other way out for combining two salats when one is muqim. In order not to miss a fard salat, one can make use of the ruling of any madhhab that permits the combination of two salats.

An old person, even if he/she does not have a visible illlness, lacks strength. He/she can barely stand and may fall if he/she is pushed. He/she may get tired even during salat or may have difficulty in performing wudu'. An old person in this situation can combine two salats even if he/she is at home and is not safari.

Question: If a safari has to combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr on Friday, should he combine the fard salat of Salat al-Jumu'ah with Salat al-Asr or Zukhr-i akhir salat with Salat al-Asr?
ANSWER
Salat al-Jumu'ah is not fard on a safari, but Salat az-Zuhr is fard on him. As some conditions for the validity of Salat al-Jumu'ah do not exist, he should skip Salat al-Jumu'ah and combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr by making use of the ruling of any of the other three madhhabs. If one has to combine them when one is muqim, then one should combine Salat az-Zuhr with Salat al-Asr by making use of the ruling of the Hanbali Madhhab.

 
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Date of Update
15 Kasım 2019 Cuma
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