Question: How are qada salats performed? Does one have to perform them in any order?
Qada salats are performed in the same way as the five fard salats are performed. One does not have to maintain a sequential order in the offering of them [except if one is a sahib-i tartib]. However, it is better to perform them in sequential order in order to calculate easily the number of qada salats one has offered.
Question: I perform sunnat salats with the intention of both performing sunnat salats and making up my qada salats. I perform the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr with the intention of making up the earliest Salat az-Zuhr I missed, the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat al-Asr with the intention of making up the earliest Salat al-Asr I missed, and the sunnat salat of Salat al-Maghrib with the intention of making up the earliest Salat al-Maghrib I missed. For example, isn't it permissible to perform the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr with the intention of making up a missed Salat al-Maghrib or Salat al-Isha or Salat al-Witr?
It makes no difference. You can perform whichever qada salat you prefer, but in this case it will be difficult to calculate how many qada salats you performed.
Question: When is it permissible and impermissible to perform qada salats?
There are three times when it is makruh tahrimi, that is, haram, to perform salat. Except these three times, one can perform qada salats anytime, even after fard salats.
The times when it is makruh to perform salat are as follows:
1. It is not permissible to perform a qada or a nafila salat until 50 minutes pass after sunrise.
2. It is not permissible to perform a qada or a nafila salat when there is 20 minutes left before the time for Salat az-Zuhr starts.
3. When there is about 45 minutes left before sunset, it is not permissible to perform a qada salat. At that time, one can perform only the fard salat of current Salat al-Asr.
Question: Does one with many qada salats become a sahib-i tartib again when one makes up all one's qada salats?
Yes, one becomes a sahib-i tartib (a person who does not have any qada salats or has fewer than six) again then.
Question: Is it permissible to perform a qada salat while I am waiting for people to form a jama'at?
It is better to perform a qada salat if one is able to catch up with the jama'at. Qada salats can be performed anytime except the times when it is makruh to perform salat.
Question: Is there anything wrong with performing qada salats in the mosque?
It is a major sin to omit a fard salat. It is sinful, too, to disclose a sin one committed. In the past, people did not have any qada salats. For this reason, when one performed a qada salat in the past, people would judge that one left a fard salat. However, today nearly everybody has qada salats. Only a Muslim comes to a mosque, and a Muslim in the mosque does not criticize a person performing salat. In the present time, performing qada salats publicly is not found strange. On the contrary, one is appreciated for this act and praised for offering salat and also making up one's qada salats. Even if one does not have any qada salats, there is nothing wrong with performing qada salats.
Hadrat Imam-i A'zam performed qada salats for years even though he did not have any missed salats. Today, there is nothing wrong with performing qada salats in the mosque because it does not receive negative comments from people.
Question: When one misses Salat al-Fajr, is there anything wrong with making it up in the afternoon?
It is gravely sinful to delay making it up without an excuse. It must be made up together with its sunnat salat until there is 20 minutes left before Salat az-Zuhr.
Question: In the Shafi'i Madhhab, it is haram for a person who has qada salats to perform sunnat or nafila salats. It is haram for such a person to perform sunnat salats, but isn't it haram for him/her to sit idle instead of making up his/her qada salats?
One misses salat due to two reasons: (1) One misses it due to a legitimate excuse accepted by Islam, such as sleeping and forgetting; (2) One skips it deliberately. It is fard to make up a salat missed due to an excuse accepted by Islam. Hurrying to make it up is mustahab. However, as for the salats that one skipped deliberately without an excuse, it is fard to make them up immediately. It is fard for one to perform qada salats all the time, except for the time when one carries out one's duties, such as providing for one's dependants. It is sinful to sit idle. It is sinful, too, for one to perform sunnat salats before making up one's qada salats. One must perform qada salats instead of them. (Mughn-il-Muhtaj, Tanwir-ul-Qulub, Irshad-ul-Ibad)
Question: If one does not recite an additional surah in the third and fourth rak'ats of qada salats that consist of four rak'ats, will one still be considered to have performed sunnat salats?
Yes, one will be considered to have performed sunnat salats as well. When one who does not have any qada salats is performing sunnat salats with the intention of both performing sunnat salats and making up qada salats, one may or may not recite an additional surah in the third and fourth rak'ats. If one who does not have any qada salats performs the sunnat salat of Salat al-Asr with the intention of both the sunnat salat and a qada salat, that salat will be considered a voluntary salat. However, one will earn the thawab for sunnat salat too, as one performs it along with the fard salat.
Question: Is it necessary to say iqamah before a qada salat?
Yes, men should say iqamah before qada salats.
Question: It is said that it is sunnat on men to say iqamah before qada salats. Did our Prophet perform a qada salat, so that saying iqamah before it became sunnat?
Yes, our Master the Prophet, too, performed a qada salat. In a war, it was impossible to perform a fard salat, so he made it up later. Even if our Master the Prophet never performed a qada salat, he told his ummat to say iqamah before qada salats when his companions asked him whether they would say iqamah when they made up Salat al-Fajr after missing it due to oversleeping.
In order for something to become sunnat, it is not necessarily be done by our Master the Prophet. His ordering people to do an action suffices for it to become sunnat. Or his seeing someone doing an action and his not prohibiting him from doing it suffices for it to become sunnat. Calling out adhan is sunnat, but it is not written in fiqh books explicitly that our Master the Prophet called out adhan. If our Master the Prophet did not call out adhan indeed, can it be said that it is not sunnat to say adhan? It is a sunnat that is a sure sign of Islam.
Question: Suppose that a Hanafi has performed salat for 10 years with a filling in his/her tooth. If he/she says, "I performed all those salats according to the Maliki [or Shafi'i] Madhhab, will he/she be considered to have made them up all?
As there is a darurat (extreme necessity), yes, he/she will.
Question: After performing Salat al-Asr, one is not allowed to perform the sunnat salat of Salat al-Asr or another nafila salat. Is one not allowed to perform a qada salat after it, either?
One can perform qada salats after Salat al-Asr. It can be performed until there is 40 minutes left before Salat al-Maghrib. If there is less than 40 minutes left before the time for Salat al-Maghrib, one can no longer perform a qada salat. However, it is fard to perform the fard salat of current Salat al-Asr even if there are a few minutes before Salat al-Maghrib. It is haram to skip it.
Question: Is it necessary to make up qada salats in all of the four madhhabs?
Yes, it is necessary.
Question: Suppose that one will perform a few days' or a few qada salats. Does it suffice to say one adhan for all of them and to make du'a and tasbihaat once at the end of all of them?
Yes, it does.
Question: Is it necessary to say iqamah before each qada salat?
Yes, it is necessary.
Question: I do not know the salats that I missed during journeys. How should I make them up?
As you do not know them, there is nothing wrong with making them up in full, without shortening them.
Question: What will be the ultimate fate of those who die before making up their qada salats?
If one sincerely begins making them up, one may be forgiven in the Hereafter or may become beneficiary of intercession and be forgiven as a result or may be forgiven thanks to isqat done by one's family and relatives or may receive punishment in the Hereafter, which is less likely. In this case, one has made an effort to make up one's qada salats, but one's life has not sufficed for one's goal to be achieved. However, the fate of those who do not perform their qada salats will be bad.
Question: If one performs a sunnat salat with the intention of both performing a sunnat salat and making up a qada salat and then if this salat is nullified, is it wajib to repeat it?
Yes, it is wajib.
Question: While one is making up Salat al-Maghrib, Salat al-Isha, and Salat al-Fajr in the daytime, is it permissible to perform recitation loudly?
Yes, it is permissible.
Question: I have years of qada salats, and I read Endless Bliss to learn fiqh. Should I make up my qada salats without delay, or should I learn fiqh?
What will you do if you perform salats incorrectly because of not learning fiqh? You have to both read Endless Bliss and keep performing qada salats.
Question: If one does not know how many salats and fasts one missed, how should one calculate them?
One should calculate them according to one's reasonable surety (dhann-i ghalib).
Question: If one misses salats because of going mad or fainting, will one have to make them up when one recovers?
If one has gone mad or has fainted due to a reason beyond one's control, such as illness, one does not have to make up one's missed salats if one cannot regain consciousness within 24 hours. That is, if such a person misses more than five salats, he/she does not have to make them up. He/she makes them up if they are fewer than five salats.
As for one who loses consciousness because of drugs, medicine, or anesthetic, one must make up all salats one missed, no matter how long one remains unconscious.
Question: If one makes every effort to make up all one's qada salats as soon as possible but if one dies before making them up, will one be considered to have died in debt?
As one aims to make up all one's qada salats, all one's qada salats will be forgiven in return for one's intention. Similarly, when a disbeliever becomes a Muslim and makes repentance for his/her disbelief, that is, when he/she decides not to lapse back into disbelief, all his/her sins will be forgiven in return for his/her intention. If an ahl al-bid'at gives up the bid'at he/she commits until death, his/her sins will be forgiven, too. (İslam Ahlakı)
Question: Is oversleeping an excuse?
Sleeping without taking necessary precautions will not be an excuse. You should either set the alarm or request a person to wake you up on time. Also, you should go to bed early. If you oversleep despite all these precautions, then oversleeping will be an excuse.
Question: It is written in fiqh books that the sunnat and nafila salats of a person who has salats to make up will not be accepted. In order to make up all my qada salats as soon as possible, is it permissible to omit sunnat elements of salat, such as saying thana, tasbihat, and salawat?
No, it is not permissible. A salat is a salat with its fard, wajib, and sunnat elements. It is makruh to skip the sunnat elements of salat. That is, it will reduce the thawab of salat. One should not skip sunnat elements when one is performing a fard salat within its prescribed time or after its prescribed time.
Question: If one who does not have any qada salats performs the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr with the intention of performing the earliest Salat az-Zuhr one missed, will one be considered to have performed the current Salat az-Zuhr as one does not have any qada salats?
No, one will not. If one does not have any qada salats, then the qada salat one performs will be considered a nafila salat. However, as it is performed at the time allotted for the sunnat salat, one is considered to have performed the sunnat salat as well.
Question: Is it makruh to perform qada salats at times when it is makruh to perform salat?
Yes, it is makruh for a person who is not sahib-i tartib to perform qada salats at these times. However, as for a person who is sahib-i tartib, if the time for Salat al-Fajr starts before he/she performs Salat al-Isha, he/she must, when waking up, make up Salat al-Isha and Salat al-Witr first and then must perform Salat al-Fajr. If he/she forgets to perform Salat az-Zuhr and remembers it when makruh time starts during the time for Salat al-Asr, he/she must make up Salat az-Zuhr first and then perform Salat al-Asr.
Question: If one misses Salat al-Fajr and makes it up before istiwa together with its sunnat salat, should one make it up with the intention of a qada salat?
When a salat is performed after its prescribed time, it is performed with the intention of a qada salat. Even if one says "I intend to make up the sunnat salat [or fard salat] of today's Salat al-Fajr," one will have made up the sunnat salat or fard salat of that day's Salat al-Fajr.
Question: A friend of mine, because of misunderstanding, performed Salat al-Fajr for years between the time when the sun rises and until 50 minutes passes after sunrise. Those salats are not valid, and they are not considered qada salats, are they?
Yes, they are not considered Salat al-Fajr or its qada salats. He/she must make them up at times when it is not makruh to perform salat.
The time for Salat al-Fajr lasts until sunrise. If one fails to perform it until sunrise, one must make it up. One cannot make it up until ishraq time. When the time for ishraq begins, one must make it up together with its sunnat salat.
Question: When intending for a qada salat, I have heard that I must say, "Of all the
salats that I have to do qada of, I intend doing qada of the first
" or "Of all the
salats that I have to do qada of, I intend doing qada of the last
" But because of ignorance, I always intended, "I intend doing qada of
salat" without specifying whether I was performing the first qada salat or the last qada salat. Were my qada salats invalid?
They are valid. (Durr-ul-Mukhtar)
From now on, you must intend "Of all the
salats that I have to do qada of, I intend doing qada of the first
" [Add the name of the salat you will do qada of at the places where we put ellipses.]
Question: For a person who has years of qada salats, is it permissible to recite short surahs, such as Surat al-Asr, Surat al-Kawhtar, or such ayahs as "Rabbanaa aatina
" or "Rabbanaghfir lee
" in order to perform qada salats quickly?
There is nothing wrong with it. However, for a person who does not have any qada salats or an urgent task, it is better to recite more than three ayahs. It is stated in a hadith-i sharif that reciting a long surah or ayah in the standing position of salat will lessen the agony at the time of death throes.
Question: While one is performing a qada salat, if the time when it is makruh to perform salat starts during the second or third rak'at, does it affect one's qada salat?
The qada salat becomes null and void. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
Question: I have heard that if one, while performing the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr that consists of four rak'ats, breaks it due to an excuse after performing one rak'at, one must make it up as two rak'ats. Is it true?
Yes, one must make it up as two rak'ats. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
There were scholars who said that one had to make it up as four rak'ats.