Question: In the madhhabs of Shafi'i and Maliki, what distance does one have to travel to become a safari (traveler), and how many days does one have to stay at one's destination to continue to be a traveler?
In the Hanafi Madhhab, the safar (travel) distance is 104 km, and one has to stay at one's destination for 15 days maximum to continue to be considered a traveler. If one stays at one's destination for 15 days or more, excluding the days of arrival and departure, one will be a muqim (resident) at one's destination. However, if one stays there for 15 days including the days of arrival and departure, one is a traveler because one stays there for 13 days as the days of arrival and departure are not counted.
In the madhhabs of Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali, one who travels 80.640 km and stays at one's destination for less than 4 days, excluding the days of arrival and departure, becomes a safari. If one stays for 4 days or more, one becomes a muqim. [A Hanafi person who also follows one of the other three madhhabs in salat out of necessity must obey the ruling of the Hanafi Madhhab regarding safar distance. As for the duration he/she stays at his/her destination, he/she must obey the ruling of the second madhhab he/she follows out of necessity.]
If a traveler arrives in a city while the adhan for Salat al-Fajr is being called out, that day of arrival is not counted.
If he/she departs from that city while the adhan for Salat al-Fajr is being called out, that day of departure is not counted, either. A Shar'i day starts when imsak time starts.