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Ghusl, ablution and salât (namâz)  >  Salât (Namâz)  >  Actions That Are Makruh in Salat

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Actions That Are Makruh in Salat

Question: What are the makruh acts that people commonly commit in salat?
ANSWER
Makruh is an act that is abominable, detestable, and disliked. It is makruh tahrimi to omit one of the sunnat-i muakkada or wajib elements of salat. It is makruh tanzihi to omit one of the sunnat-i ghayr-i muakkada elements of salat. A salat in which a makruh act has been committed is valid, but it brings a little thawab.

Some of the most commonly committed makruh acts are as follows:

1.
Omitting ta’dil-i arkan,

2.
Looking around by turning the head,

3.
Spreading the arms flat resting the elbows on the ground in sajda position [women should spread their arms flat on the ground],

4.
Bowing the head to one side,

5.
Not closing the mouth when yawning,

6.
Shutting the eyes without a valid excuse,

7.
Performing salat in the back row though there is space in the front row,

8.
Performing salat in a garment on which there is the picture of an animal or of a human,

9.
Performing salat in a room where the picture of an animal or of a human is hung,

10. Performing salat clad in clothes that you wear at work or that you could not wear if you were to see your superiors or wearing smelly socks,

11.
Beginning salat when you need to urinate, defecate, or break wind,

12. Keeping the fingers close together or wide open when saying the opening takbir or when sitting, [You should keep them in the natural state. Keep them close together in sajda and open in ruku’.]

13.
Pulling up pants when going down for sajda,

14. (For a man) performing salat bareheaded [salat is offered bareheaded when he is in ihram in Mecca],

15.
Putting more weight on one foot than the other,

16.
When the imam starts leading the fard salat of Salat al-Fajr, a newcomer’s performing the sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr among jama’at or anywhere else instead of the anteroom of the mosque or behind a pillar, [If the imam is about to start the fard salat, one must not start the sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr, of Salat al-‘Asr, or of Salat al-Isha. One must follow the imam.]

17.
Reciting the prayer that begins with “Subhaanakallahumma …” while the imam is performing recitation loudly,

18. Putting the head on the ground or raising it earlier than the imam does, or bowing for ruku’ or lifting the head from ruku’ earlier than the imam does,

19.
(For a man) performing salat barefoot [he should perform salat barefoot in the Shafi’i Madhhab],

20.
(For a man) performing salat with his sleeves rolled or with a short-sleeved shirt,

21.
Bending to the right or to the left or swinging,

22. Not touching the nose to the ground in sajda,

23. Lifting one foot from the ground during sajda [according to some scholars, it nullifies salat to lift both feet],

24. Completing in ruku’ what you are reciting in qiyam, and vice versa,

25. Scratching an itching place twice in a rukn [it nullifies salat to scratch a place three separate times in a rukn],

26. Performing recitation in salat as loudly as four or five people can hear [salat will not be valid if one recites as quietly as one cannot hear one’s own recitation],

27. Reciting in the second rak’at the ayah that you recited in the first rak’at or the ayah preceding it [it is not makruh to do so forgetfully] or reciting in the second rak’at three ayahs more than the ones recited in the first rak’at,

28. Not sitting in the sunnat method during tashahhud without a valid excuse or not keeping the feet apart with a distance of four fingers during standing position [in the Shafi’i Madhhab, what is sunnat is to keep them apart with a distance of a hand span],

29.
Standing up by leaning against something without a valid excuse,

30. Not standing up immediately for sunnat salat after performing a fard salat, or talking or reciting something in between,

31. Walking in front of a person performing salat or performing salat at people’s walking areas,

32.
Omitting one of the sunnat elements of salat.

Sunnat is of two types: sunan-i huda (also known as sunnat-i muakkada) and sunan-i zawaid (also known as sunnat-i ghayr-i muakkada).

Omitting one of the sunnat-i muakkada or wajib elements of salat will be makruh tahrimi. Omitting one of the sunnat-i ghayr-i muakkada elements of salat will be makruh tanzihi. Omitting one of the mustahab elements of salat will not be makruh.

Makruh tanzihi is close to halal while makruh tahrimi is close to haram. A salat in which a makruh act has been committed is counted as valid, but it brings a little thawab. (Imad-ul-Islam)

Question: Is it correct to let the hands drop down at one’s sides before completing recitation?
ANSWER
It is not correct and is against the sunnat method. It is sunnat to keep them folded until recitation is completed.

Question: Is it permissible to intertwine the fingers of one hand with those of the other hand?
ANSWER
Doing so in salat is makruh tahrimi, and doing it outside of salat is makruh tanzihi.

Question: There are mosques in cemeteries. Is it permissible to perform salat toward a grave?
ANSWER
It is makruh to perform salat toward a grave if there are no curtains or a wall in between. (Ma’rifatnama)

Salat will not be makruh if there are curtains or a wall between the qibla of the mosque and the grave or if the grave is on the right-hand side or on the left-hand side of the person performing salat. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)

It is stated in a hadith-i sharif:
(Do not perform salat toward a grave.) [Nasai]

Question: Do angels of compassion enter a place where there is a musical instrument, a television, or alcohol?
ANSWER
Angels of compassion do not enter a place where there is gambling, a musical instrument, a television, a picture of a human or of an animal or of a cross, a dog, a junub, alcohol, or a drunk. A salat performed in such a place is rendered makruh, and the du’a made in such a place is unacceptable.

Question: If angels of compassion do not enter a place where there is gambling, a musical instrument, a television, a picture of a human or of an animal or of a cross, a dog, a junub, alcohol, or a drunk, what will I lose?
ANSWER
A salat in which a makruh act has been committed is valid. That is, a person who performs salat in this way is counted as having done the obligatory duty, but (s)he cannot earn the great rewards given in return for salat. If there is something in a house or in a room that prevents angels from entering there, its residents will be destitute of the du’a made by angels for them.

Question: When performing salat in a room where there is a picture of a human or of an animal, is it a solution to overturn it or to cover it with something so that my salat may not be rendered makruh?
ANSWER
Yes, it is a solution. Your salat will not be rendered makruh if it is overturned or covered with something.

Question: Is it makruh to look around in salat without turning the head?
ANSWER
Yes, it is makruh tanzihi.

Question:
Is it correct to perform salat while one is suppressing the urge to urinate?
ANSWER
It is makruh. One should say the salam to end the salat, relieve oneself, make wudu’, and repeat the salat.

Question: I have been taught that it is makruh to perform salat when one is suppressing the urge to urinate, defecate, or break wind. For example, I feel the urge to break wind, but it passes after a while. Is it makruh to perform salat when it has passed?
ANSWER
It is not makruh. An urge that lasts only for a short time does not render salat makruh. The criterion is this: If the urge does not come to mind and not adversely affect peace of mind, it will not render salat makruh. However, if one constantly thinks about relieving oneself as soon as completing salat, then one’s salat will be rendered makruh.

Question: Is performing salat without a taqiyah makruh in the Shafi’i Madhhab, too?
ANSWER
Yes, it is makruh.

Question: Is it sinful to perform salat in front of a mirror?
ANSWER
If you see yourself reflected in the mirror, it will render your salat makruh as it is distracting. For this reason, you should cover it with something so that you will not be reflected in it.

Question: Some people perform Salat at-Tasbih, which is a nafila salat, in jama’at. When we explain that it is makruh to perform nafila salats in jama’at, they reply: “We first vow to perform Salat at-Tasbih. When we make a vow, it becomes wajib to perform that salat. Thus, we perform it in jama’at. We sometimes begin a salat in jama’at and before completing it, we break it. Since it is wajib to reperform that salat, we perform it in jama’at.” Is it permissible to perform a salat in jama’at by making it wajib?
ANSWER
As Salat at-Tasbih is a voluntary (nafila) salat, it cannot be performed in jama’at. It is written in the book Durar: "Except in Ramadan, even Salat al-Witr cannot be performed in jama’at. This principle is established by ijma’. In Ramadan, voluntary salats, except Salat at-Tarawih, cannot be performed in jama’at. However, if a person comes without having been invited and follows another person in a voluntary salat or if two people follow one person, then it will not be makruh. In the case of three people, the issue is controversial. If there are four people, it is makruh by unanimity.” Secondly, wajib salats cannot be offered in jama’at. Although Salat at-Witr is wajib, it cannot be performed in jama’at except in Ramadan. How can Salat at-Tasbih be performed in jama’at?

Question:
Just as it is makruh to perform salat toward a green tree, so is it makruh to perform salat toward trees in the forest by considering them as sutra?
ANSWER
It is makruh to perform salat toward a green tree with the sole intention of performing it toward it. However, if one’s intention is different, e.g., to use them as a barrier (sutra), then it will not be makruh.

Question: My kid put a picture in front of me when I was performing salat. Was my salat rendered makruh?
ANSWER
No, it was not.

Question: If a man performs salat with one-fourth of the part between his elbow and wrist exposed, will his salat be makruh?
ANSWER
Yes, it will be makruh. One-fourth of a limb is counted as the entire limb. There is unanimity of scholars that it is makruh to expose the part up to the elbow in salat. But there is no unanimity that it is makruh to expose one-fourth of it.

Question: When performing salat, if one looks at a clock or writing and understands what the time is or what that writing is, will it render one’s salat makruh?
ANSWER
Yes, it will render one’s salat makruh.

Question: Is it permissible to show others that you are performing a qada (missed) salat?
ANSWER
In fact, it is makruh. However, today there is nothing wrong with it. It was makruh at times when Muslims did not have any missed salats.

Question: In the Maliki Madhhab, it is makruh to say the ta’awwudh (the phrase A’oodhu billahi …) during standing position in salat. If one who normally follows the Hanafi Madhhab also follows the Maliki Madhhab in salat out of necessity, should one say the ta’awwudh?
ANSWER
When one follows a second madhhab out of necessity, one should do fard elements that the second madhhab one is to follow has established concerning that act of worship and avoid doing whatsoever the second madhhab has pronounced to be detrimental to that act of worship. One does not have to avoid makruh acts that the second madhhab has established concerning that act of worship. That is, you should say the ta’awwudh because you have not abandoned the madhhab you normally follow.

Question: After completing salat, I saw a picture that would render my salat makruh. Did it render my salat makruh?
ANSWER
It was not rendered makruh as you did not perform salat there deliberately.

Question: I follow the Maliki Madhhab in addition to the Hanafi Madhhab because I have a filling in my tooth. In sajda position, I put my head on my hands. Is there anything wrong with it?
ANSWER
It is makruh in the Hanafi Madhhab and not valid in the other three madhhabs. For this reason, you should not put your head on your hands.

Question: Is there anything wrong with performing salat wearing gloves?
ANSWER
It is makruh to perform salat wearing gloves without a valid excuse. It is not makruh if it is cold or if there is another valid excuse.

Question:
I live abroad. Can I perform salat in a church, synagogue, or Buddhist temple at a place where there is no mosque?
ANSWER
In the Islamic religion, salat can be performed anywhere. It can be performed, for example, in the mountains, a vineyard, a plain, a garden, a street, even in a church. However, as there are pictures in a church, they render one’s salat makruh, so one should not perform salat in it if there is no extreme necessity. One can perform salat in a church if there is no picture there.

Question: Is it makruh for a man to begin salat while his wife is sitting near him?
ANSWER
Yes, it is makruh. However, it will not be makruh if there is space between him and her as much as a person can pass.

Question: Is it makruh to perform salat toward the back of a mahram woman?
ANSWER
It is not makruh.

Question: Is there maximum duration for sitting between two sajdas?
ANSWER
Yes, there is. It is makruh to delay the other fard elements of salat by sitting much between two sajdas.

Question: If a friend of mine has performed salat incorrectly, e.g., three rak’ats instead of four rak’ats, is it makruh not to inform him/her about his/her error?
ANSWER
Yes, it is makruh.

Question: Is there anything wrong with performing salat in clothes that one wore when one was sexually impure or was menstruating?
ANSWER
No, there is nothing wrong with it.

Question:
Is there anything wrong with completing the last portion of Surat al-Fatiha or of an additional surah at ruku’?
ANSWER
Completing an additional surah at ruku’ is makruh according to the four madhhabs. Completing Surat al-Fatiha at ruku’ is makruh in the Hanafi Madhhab. It breaks salat in the other three madhhabs.

Question: Is it permissible to close the eyes in salat without a valid excuse?
ANSWER
It is makruh tanzihi. However, it will not be makruh to close them with the intention of focusing your mind on salat.

Question: If one enters the mosque with bad-smelling socks or with something that smells foul, will one be considered to have committed a sin that involves the rights of human beings?
ANSWER
Annoying a person in any way is a sin that involves the rights of a human being. It is stated in a hadith-i sharif:
(Let him who has eaten food with a bad smell, such as garlic, onion, leek, or radish, not approach our mosque.) [Tabarani]

Question: Is it permissible to perform salat in a room where there is a musical instrument or a computer?
ANSWER
It is written in fiqh books:
It is makruh to perform salat in a room where there is a musical instrument. (Targhib-us-salat, Nisab-ul-ahbar)

Pieces of equipment through which musical instruments are heard and pictures that are haram to look at are watched are like musical instruments. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)

If one uses the radio, television, computer, or video for music or if pictures that are haram to look at are watched by them, they are considered musical instruments. The salat performed in a room where there is such a piece of equipment will be makruh.

If one does not listen to music or not look at haram images by them, then it will not be makruh to perform salat in a room where they are.

Question: Is it makruh to perform salat on a carpet?
ANSWER
No, it is not makruh, but it is preferable to do sajda on soil. There is nothing wrong with spreading out something on the ground with the intention of being protected against cold or hot weather or with the intention of protecting one’s garment against dust. But it is makruh to spread out something purely and simply for the purpose avoiding doing sajda on soil. According to the majority of Islamic scholars, there is nothing wrong with doing sajda on something like a carpet or sheepskin. According to Hadrat Imam-i Malik, it is makruh to do sajda on things that do not grow on earth, like a carpet or sheepskin. According to Imam-i A’zam and the other imams, it is not makruh. It is not makruh, either, for a Hanafi who also follows one of the rulings of the Maliki Madhhab in salat out of necessity. There is nothing wrong with performing salat on things made of linen, hemp, or cotton, which grows on earth.

Question: Is it makruh to perform salat on sacks of rice or wheat?
ANSWER
It is not makruh because they are hard.

Question: Is it allowed to wear a garment or socks that have writing on them in salat or outside of salat?
ANSWER
You should, as far as possible, prefer the ones that do not have writing on them. If a man has writing on his socks, it may divert the attention of the person sitting behind him. If he reads it out of curiosity, then his salat will be makruh. If the writing on one’s garment is visible in salat, one’s salat will be makruh. If it is not visible, then one’s salat will not be makruh.

Question: Is it makruh to perform salat in pants or pajama bottoms with pants legs touching the ground?
ANSWER
No, it is not makruh. One may fold them back up to the ankles.

Question: As I suffer from allergic rhinitis, my nose runs especially during Salat al-Fajr. Is it makruh to wipe my nose so that my mucus will not soil the carpet in the mosque?
ANSWER
Beneficial actions do not harm salat. For example, wiping your sweat or the mucus of your nose with your hand does not render your salat makruh. If you raise your hand three times in a rukn, then your salat will be invalid.

Question: If the time for a salat is about to expire, is it makruh to perform salat when one is resisting the urge to urinate, defecate, or break wind?
ANSWER
It is makruh to begin salat when you need to urinate, defecate, or break wind. It will not be makruh lest the salat time will expire or lest one will miss Salat al-Janaza. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)

Question:
Is it permissible to bend the head to one side in salat?
ANSWER
It is makruh.

Question: Though it is makruh for the imam to say the tasbihaat more than three times, the Wahhabite imams in Mecca lengthen ruku’ and sajda. Is it not makruh for them to sit between two sajdas longer than what is prescribed by sunnat?
ANSWER
Their beliefs are corrupt. So does it matter much that they commit a makruh act? In order for a salat to be acceptable, one’s beliefs must be correct first. If one’s beliefs are not correct, one’s salats will be to no avail, even if one has observed all of the necessary components of salat.

Question: It is written in Se’adet-i Ebediyye, “It is makruh to perform salat with a bare head because of laziness or without realizing the importance of performing salat with a covered head. And it causes disbelief to slight salat.” Covering the head for salat is sunnat, and it causes disbelief not to consider a sunnat important. But why is it termed makruh in that book?
ANSWER
What is makruh is not to think about the importance of the sunnat act. If one says “I do not put anything on my head even if it may be sunnat” though one knows the fact that covering the head with a taqiyah is sunnat, that is, if one takes the sunnat element lightly, then it will certainly cause disbelief.

It does not cause disbelief to omit a sunnat or fard act out of laziness. As it is not disbelief to omit a fard act, it cannot be called disbelief not to cover the head for salat. Similarly, it is not disbelief to commit a haram. For example, if one backbites out of habit or without thinking the danger of committing a haram, such a person is not labeled a disbeliever. That is, it cannot be said about a person who commits a makruh or haram act that (s)he considers it unimportant.

Question: Is it makruh to crack knuckles?
ANSWER
When joining jama’at in order to perform salat in a mosque, when beginning salat, or during salat, it is makruh to crack the fingers.

Question: There is a picture of the cross on the wall of the house of my friend who is on intimate terms with Christians. Is there anything wrong with performing salat in that room?
ANSWER
It causes disbelief to like the religious rites of Christians, to use signs of disbelief such as wearing rope girdle called zunnar or a cross when there is no extreme necessity (darurat), or to have a liking for them. The picture of the cross is like the picture of a human or of an animal, so it is makruh to perform salat in a room where it is hung if there is no extreme necessity to perform salat there.

Question: Is the writing in the Roman alphabet hung on the wall of qibla considered a picture? Is it makruh to perform salat toward it?
ANSWER
It is not considered a picture and does not render one’s salat makruh. However, such writing may adversely affect one’s peace of mind. For this reason, one should not perform salat toward writing.

Question: It is makruh to delay the fard salat of Salat al-Isha until midnight. Is it makruh, too, to delay the sunnat salats of it?
ANSWER
It is makruh to delay only the fard of it. It is not makruh to perform the sunnat salats of it even if one has delayed them because it is not makruh to perform a voluntary salat, including the pre-fard and post-fard sunnat salats of Salat al-Isha, in the period starting with midnight and lasting until the time for Salat al-Fajr.

 
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Date of Update
20 Kasým 2019 Çarţamba
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