Question: What are the makruh acts that people commonly commit
Makruh is an act that is
abominable, detestable, and disliked. It is makruh tahrimi to omit one
of the sunnat-i muakkada or wajib elements of salat.
It is makruh tanzihi to omit one of the sunnat-i ghayr-i
muakkada elements of salat. A salat in which a
makruh act has been committed is valid, but it brings a little
Some of the most commonly committed makruh acts
are as follows:
1. Omitting ta’dil-i arkan,
Looking around by turning the head,
3. Spreading the arms flat
resting the elbows on the ground in sajda position [women should spread
their arms flat on the ground],
4. Bowing the head to one
5. Not closing the mouth when yawning,
Shutting the eyes without a valid excuse,
salat in the back row though there is space in the front
8. Performing salat in a garment on which there
is the picture of an animal or of a human,
salat in a room where the picture of an animal or of a human is
10. Performing salat clad in clothes that you wear
at work or that you could not wear if you were to see your superiors or wearing
11. Beginning salat when you need to
urinate, defecate, or break wind,
12. Keeping the fingers close
together or wide open when saying the opening takbir or when sitting,
[You should keep them in the natural state. Keep them close together in
sajda and open in ruku’.]
13. Pulling up pants
when going down for sajda,
14. (For a man) performing
salat bareheaded [salat is offered bareheaded when he is in
ihram in Mecca],
15. Putting more weight on one foot than
16. When the imam starts leading the fard
salat of Salat al-Fajr, a newcomer’s performing the sunnat
salat of Salat al-Fajr among jama’at or anywhere else
instead of the anteroom of the mosque or behind a pillar, [If the imam
is about to start the fard salat, one must not start the sunnat
salat of Salat az-Zuhr, of Salat al-‘Asr, or of Salat
al-Isha. One must follow the imam.]
17. Reciting the
prayer that begins with “Subhaanakallahumma …” while the imam
is performing recitation loudly,
18. Putting the head on the
ground or raising it earlier than the imam does, or bowing for
ruku’ or lifting the head from ruku’ earlier than the
19. (For a man) performing salat
barefoot [he should perform salat barefoot in the Shafi’i
20. (For a man) performing salat with his
sleeves rolled or with a short-sleeved shirt,
21. Bending to the
right or to the left or swinging,
22. Not touching the
nose to the ground in sajda,
23. Lifting one foot
from the ground during sajda [according to some scholars, it nullifies
salat to lift both feet],
24. Completing in
ruku’ what you are reciting in qiyam, and vice versa,
25. Scratching an itching place twice in a rukn [it
nullifies salat to scratch a place three separate times in a
26. Performing recitation in salat as
loudly as four or five people can hear [salat will not be valid if one
recites as quietly as one cannot hear one’s own recitation],
Reciting in the second rak’at the ayah that you recited in
the first rak’at or the ayah preceding it [it is not
makruh to do so forgetfully] or reciting in the second rak’at
three ayahs more than the ones recited in the first
28. Not sitting in the sunnat method
during tashahhud without a valid excuse or not keeping the feet apart
with a distance of four fingers during standing position [in the Shafi’i
Madhhab, what is sunnat is to keep them apart with a distance of a
29. Standing up by leaning against something without
a valid excuse,
30. Not standing up immediately for sunnat
salat after performing a fard salat, or talking or reciting
something in between,
31. Walking in front of a person
performing salat or performing salat at people’s walking
32. Omitting one of the sunnat elements of
Sunnat is of two types: sunan-i huda
(also known as sunnat-i muakkada) and sunan-i zawaid (also
known as sunnat-i ghayr-i muakkada).
Omitting one of the
sunnat-i muakkada or wajib elements of salat will be
makruh tahrimi. Omitting one of the sunnat-i ghayr-i muakkada
elements of salat will be makruh tanzihi. Omitting one of the
mustahab elements of salat will not be makruh.
Makruh tanzihi is close to halal while
makruh tahrimi is close to haram. A salat in which a
makruh act has been committed is counted as valid, but it brings a
little thawab. (Imad-ul-Islam)
Question: Is it
correct to let the hands drop down at one’s sides before completing
It is not correct and is against the
sunnat method. It is sunnat to keep them folded until
recitation is completed.
Question: Is it permissible to intertwine
the fingers of one hand with those of the other hand?
so in salat is makruh tahrimi, and doing it outside of
salat is makruh tanzihi.
Question: There are
mosques in cemeteries. Is it permissible to perform salat toward a
It is makruh to perform salat
toward a grave if there are no curtains or a wall in between.
Salat will not be makruh if there
are curtains or a wall between the qibla of the mosque and the grave or
if the grave is on the right-hand side or on the left-hand side of the person
performing salat. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)
It is stated in a
(Do not perform salat toward a grave.)
Question: Do angels of compassion enter a place where
there is a musical instrument, a television, or
Angels of compassion do not enter a place where
there is gambling, a musical instrument, a television, a picture of a human or
of an animal or of a cross, a dog, a junub, alcohol, or a drunk. A
salat performed in such a place is rendered makruh, and the
du’a made in such a place is unacceptable.
angels of compassion do not enter a place where there is gambling, a musical
instrument, a television, a picture of a human or of an animal or of a cross, a
dog, a junub, alcohol, or a drunk, what will I
A salat in which a makruh act has
been committed is valid. That is, a person who performs salat in this
way is counted as having done the obligatory duty, but (s)he cannot earn the
great rewards given in return for salat. If there is something in a
house or in a room that prevents angels from entering there, its residents will
be destitute of the du’a made by angels for them.
Question: When performing salat in a room where there is
a picture of a human or of an animal, is it a solution to overturn it or to
cover it with something so that my salat may not be rendered
Yes, it is a solution. Your salat
will not be rendered makruh if it is overturned or covered with
Question: Is it makruh to look around in
salat without turning the head?
Yes, it is
Question: Is it correct to perform
salat while one is suppressing the urge to
It is makruh. One should say the
salam to end the salat, relieve oneself, make wudu’,
and repeat the salat.
Question: I have been taught that
it is makruh to perform salat when one is suppressing the urge
to urinate, defecate, or break wind. For example, I feel the urge to break wind,
but it passes after a while. Is it makruh to perform salat
when it has passed?
It is not makruh. An urge that
lasts only for a short time does not render salat makruh. The
criterion is this: If the urge does not come to mind and not adversely affect
peace of mind, it will not render salat makruh. However, if
one constantly thinks about relieving oneself as soon as completing
salat, then one’s salat will be rendered makruh.
Question: Is performing salat without a taqiyah
makruh in the Shafi’i Madhhab, too?
it is makruh.
Question: Is it sinful to perform
salat in front of a mirror?
If you see yourself
reflected in the mirror, it will render your salat makruh as
it is distracting. For this reason, you should cover it with something so that
you will not be reflected in it.
Question: Some people perform
Salat at-Tasbih, which is a nafila salat, in jama’at.
When we explain that it is makruh to perform nafila salats in
jama’at, they reply: “We first vow to perform Salat at-Tasbih.
When we make a vow, it becomes wajib to perform that salat.
Thus, we perform it in jama’at. We sometimes begin a salat in
jama’at and before completing it, we break it. Since it is
wajib to reperform that salat, we perform it in
jama’at.” Is it permissible to perform a salat in
jama’at by making it wajib?
at-Tasbih is a voluntary (nafila) salat, it cannot be
performed in jama’at. It is written in the book Durar: "Except
in Ramadan, even Salat al-Witr cannot be performed in jama’at.
This principle is established by ijma’. In Ramadan, voluntary
salats, except Salat at-Tarawih, cannot be performed in
jama’at. However, if a person comes without having been invited and
follows another person in a voluntary salat or if two people follow one
person, then it will not be makruh. In the case of three people, the
issue is controversial. If there are four people, it is makruh by
unanimity.” Secondly, wajib salats cannot be offered in
jama’at. Although Salat at-Witr is wajib, it cannot
be performed in jama’at except in Ramadan. How can Salat
at-Tasbih be performed in jama’at?
Question: Just as
it is makruh to perform salat toward a green tree, so is it
makruh to perform salat toward trees in the forest by
considering them as sutra?
It is makruh to
perform salat toward a green tree with the sole intention of performing
it toward it. However, if one’s intention is different, e.g., to use them as a
barrier (sutra), then it will not be makruh.
Question: My kid put a picture in front of me when I was
performing salat. Was my salat rendered
No, it was not.
a man performs salat with one-fourth of the part between his elbow and
wrist exposed, will his salat be
Yes, it will be makruh. One-fourth
of a limb is counted as the entire limb. There is unanimity of scholars that it
is makruh to expose the part up to the elbow in salat. But
there is no unanimity that it is makruh to expose one-fourth of it.
Question: When performing salat, if one looks at a clock
or writing and understands what the time is or what that writing is, will it
render one’s salat makruh?
Yes, it will render
one’s salat makruh.
Question: Is it permissible
to show others that you are performing a qada (missed)
In fact, it is makruh. However,
today there is nothing wrong with it. It was makruh at times when
Muslims did not have any missed salats.
Question: In the
Maliki Madhhab, it is makruh to say the ta’awwudh
(the phrase A’oodhu billahi …) during standing position in
salat. If one who normally follows the Hanafi Madhhab also
follows the Maliki Madhhab in salat out of necessity, should
one say the ta’awwudh?
When one follows a second
madhhab out of necessity, one should do fard elements that the
second madhhab one is to follow has established concerning that act of
worship and avoid doing whatsoever the second madhhab has pronounced to
be detrimental to that act of worship. One does not have to avoid
makruh acts that the second madhhab has established concerning
that act of worship. That is, you should say the ta’awwudh because you
have not abandoned the madhhab you normally follow.
Question: After completing salat, I saw a picture that
would render my salat makruh. Did it render my salat
It was not rendered makruh as you did
not perform salat there deliberately.
Question: I follow
the Maliki Madhhab in addition to the Hanafi Madhhab because I
have a filling in my tooth. In sajda position, I put my head on my
hands. Is there anything wrong with it?
makruh in the Hanafi Madhhab and not valid in the other three
madhhabs. For this reason, you should not put your head on your hands.
Question: Is there anything wrong with performing salat
It is makruh to perform
salat wearing gloves without a valid excuse. It is not makruh
if it is cold or if there is another valid excuse.
live abroad. Can I perform salat in a church, synagogue, or Buddhist
temple at a place where there is no mosque?
In the Islamic
religion, salat can be performed anywhere. It can be performed, for
example, in the mountains, a vineyard, a plain, a garden, a street, even in a
church. However, as there are pictures in a church, they render one’s salat
makruh, so one should not perform salat in it if there is no
extreme necessity. One can perform salat in a church if there is no
Question: Is it makruh for a man to begin
salat while his wife is sitting near him?
is makruh. However, it will not be makruh if there is space
between him and her as much as a person can pass.
Question: Is it
makruh to perform salat toward the back of a mahram
It is not makruh.
Is there maximum duration for sitting between two
Yes, there is. It is makruh to
delay the other fard elements of salat by sitting much between
Question: If a friend of mine has performed
salat incorrectly, e.g., three rak’ats instead of four
rak’ats, is it makruh not to inform him/her about his/her
Yes, it is makruh.
Is there anything wrong with performing salat in clothes that one
wore when one was sexually impure or was menstruating?
there is nothing wrong with it.
Question: Is there anything wrong
with completing the last portion of Surat al-Fatiha or of an additional
surah at ruku’?
additional surah at ruku’ is makruh according to the
four madhhabs. Completing Surat al-Fatiha at ruku’ is
makruh in the Hanafi Madhhab. It breaks salat in the
other three madhhabs.
Question: Is it permissible to
close the eyes in salat without a valid excuse?
is makruh tanzihi. However, it will not be makruh to close
them with the intention of focusing your mind on salat.
Question: If one enters the mosque with bad-smelling socks or
with something that smells foul, will one be considered to have committed a sin
that involves the rights of human beings?
Annoying a person
in any way is a sin that involves the rights of a human being. It is stated in a
(Let him who has eaten food with a bad smell,
such as garlic, onion, leek, or radish, not approach our mosque.)
Question: Is it permissible to perform
salat in a room where there is a musical instrument or a
It is written in fiqh books:
makruh to perform salat in a room where there is a musical
instrument. (Targhib-us-salat, Nisab-ul-ahbar)
equipment through which musical instruments are heard and pictures that are
haram to look at are watched are like musical instruments.
If one uses the radio, television, computer,
or video for music or if pictures that are haram to look at are
watched by them, they are considered musical instruments. The
salat performed in a room where there is such a piece of equipment will
If one does not listen to music or not look at
haram images by them, then it will not be makruh to perform
salat in a room where they are.
Question: Is it
makruh to perform salat on a carpet?
it is not makruh, but it is preferable to do sajda on soil.
There is nothing wrong with spreading out something on the ground with the
intention of being protected against cold or hot weather or with the intention
of protecting one’s garment against dust. But it is makruh to spread
out something purely and simply for the purpose avoiding doing sajda on
soil. According to the majority of Islamic scholars, there is nothing wrong with
doing sajda on something like a carpet or sheepskin. According to
Hadrat Imam-i Malik, it is makruh to do sajda on things that
do not grow on earth, like a carpet or sheepskin. According to Imam-i A’zam and
the other imams, it is not makruh. It is not makruh,
either, for a Hanafi who also follows one of the rulings of the
Maliki Madhhab in salat out of necessity. There is nothing
wrong with performing salat on things made of linen, hemp, or cotton,
which grows on earth.
Question: Is it makruh to perform
salat on sacks of rice or wheat?
It is not
makruh because they are hard.
Question: Is it allowed to
wear a garment or socks that have writing on them in salat or outside
You should, as far as possible, prefer
the ones that do not have writing on them. If a man has writing on his socks, it
may divert the attention of the person sitting behind him. If he reads it out of
curiosity, then his salat will be makruh. If the writing on
one’s garment is visible in salat, one’s salat will be
makruh. If it is not visible, then one’s salat will not be
Question: Is it makruh to perform
salat in pants or pajama bottoms with pants legs touching the
No, it is not makruh. One may fold them
back up to the ankles.
Question: As I suffer from allergic
rhinitis, my nose runs especially during Salat al-Fajr. Is it
makruh to wipe my nose so that my mucus will not soil the carpet in the
Beneficial actions do not harm salat. For
example, wiping your sweat or the mucus of your nose with your hand does not
render your salat makruh. If you raise your hand three times in a
rukn, then your salat will be invalid.
If the time for a salat is about to expire, is it makruh
to perform salat when one is resisting the urge to urinate, defecate,
or break wind?
It is makruh to begin salat
when you need to urinate, defecate, or break wind. It will not be
makruh lest the salat time will expire or lest one will miss
Salat al-Janaza. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)
it permissible to bend the head to one side in
It is makruh.
Though it is makruh for the imam to say the
tasbihaat more than three times, the Wahhabite imams in Mecca
lengthen ruku’ and sajda. Is it not makruh for them
to sit between two sajdas longer than what is prescribed by
Their beliefs are corrupt. So does it
matter much that they commit a makruh act? In order for a
salat to be acceptable, one’s beliefs must be correct first. If one’s
beliefs are not correct, one’s salats will be to no avail, even if one
has observed all of the necessary components of salat.
Question: It is written in Se’adet-i Ebediyye, “It is
makruh to perform salat with a bare head because of laziness
or without realizing the importance of performing salat with a covered
head. And it causes disbelief to slight salat.” Covering the head
for salat is sunnat, and it causes disbelief not to consider a
sunnat important. But why is it termed makruh in that
What is makruh is not to think about the
importance of the sunnat act. If one says “I do not put anything on my
head even if it may be sunnat” though one knows the fact that covering
the head with a taqiyah is sunnat, that is, if one takes the
sunnat element lightly, then it will certainly cause disbelief.
not cause disbelief to omit a sunnat or fard act out of
laziness. As it is not disbelief to omit a fard act, it cannot be
called disbelief not to cover the head for salat. Similarly, it is not
disbelief to commit a haram. For example, if one backbites out of habit
or without thinking the danger of committing a haram, such a person is
not labeled a disbeliever. That is, it cannot be said about a person who commits
a makruh or haram act that (s)he considers it
Question: Is it makruh to crack
When joining jama’at in order to perform
salat in a mosque, when beginning salat, or during
salat, it is makruh to crack the fingers.
There is a picture of the cross on the wall of the house of my friend who is
on intimate terms with Christians. Is there anything wrong with performing
salat in that room?
It causes disbelief to like the
religious rites of Christians, to use signs of disbelief such as wearing rope
girdle called zunnar or a cross when there is no extreme necessity
(darurat), or to have a liking for them. The picture of the cross is
like the picture of a human or of an animal, so it is makruh to perform
salat in a room where it is hung if there is no extreme necessity to
perform salat there.
Question: Is the writing in the
Roman alphabet hung on the wall of qibla considered a picture? Is it
makruh to perform salat toward it?
not considered a picture and does not render one’s salat
makruh. However, such writing may adversely affect one’s peace of mind.
For this reason, one should not perform salat toward writing.
Question: It is makruh to delay the fard salat
of Salat al-Isha until midnight. Is it makruh, too, to delay
the sunnat salats of it?
It is makruh to
delay only the fard of it. It is not makruh to perform the
sunnat salats of it even if one has delayed them because it is not
makruh to perform a voluntary salat, including the
pre-fard and post-fard sunnat salats of Salat
al-Isha, in the period starting with midnight and lasting until the time
for Salat al-Fajr.